Tag Archives: Francisca Millán

When a lesbian dies: the search for justice for Nicole Saavedra and DJ Anna Cook

DJ Anna Cook Nicole Saavedra

We talk about lesbicide when a lesbian is killed for being so. In our society, loving a woman as a woman is one of the greatest insults to masculinity shown by corrective sexual harassment, rapes that serve as a “warning”, and coexistence with mandatory heterosexuality that repeatedly urges you to stay in the closet. Visibility is the political point that links them: Nicole and Anna were visible lesbians, and they pose the question: did they die because they were lesbians?

Francisca Millán is a lawyer specialising in human rights and gender. Partner of the AML study, which is dedicated exclusively to the defence of women in cases involving gender violence. Her project offers a feminist perspective to realise the right of access to justice. Millán affirms that women are violated in the Chilean legal system. In this scenario, being a lesbian is a direct and very specific affront.

“Lesbianism, from hegemonic masculinity, is a resistance to the social order, because I do not submit to heteropatriarchal logic, I am out of it, and I am not willing to occupy that role,” Millán explains.

Crimes that directly affect lesbians for being lesbian are lesbicide (murder of a lesbian)  and corrective rape (rape of a lesbian in order to “correct her”). They do not exist as such in the Chilean penal code, but, according to Millán, mixing the base crimes with the Zamudio Law, they can be put forward as hate crimes.

“Crimes of this nature express a lot of power, and show that there is an exercise of subjugation with respect to others. That is quite common in the case of lesbians: what more obvious way to subjugate a woman who is a lesbian than to force her to practice oral sex, ”says the lawyer.

Carmina Vásquez is a lawyer. She is part of the Lesbofeminist Network, an articulator of organizations whose purpose is to form support networks for lesbians. Their venture, Chueca Bar, will open soon – a lesbian bar that wants to be a safe space within a very hostile city.

“This has been a tough year. There is the case of Carolina Torres (beaten in Pudahuel), we recently learned about violent girls in the Forest Park. That scares you, it happens at five in the afternoon, and it happens in the places where we meet, ”she explains. For her, there is a social punishment for being a lesbian, coupled with being a woman. “These crimes of lesbo-hate go hand in hand with sexual issues under the premise of the” I am going to teach you “type. We talk about corrective violations, which also target a specific type of lesbian: the truck [butch], who defies heteronormal roles, ”she says.

The first recorded and investigated lesophobia crime is that of Mónica Briones, beaten to death in one of the corners of Plaza Italia in 1984. The case accelerated the formation of the first lesbian feminist collective in Chile, Ayuquelén, which existed for 15 years.

“In the year 84, when they killed Monica, it lead to our broad understanding of what happened to us all, the discrimination we were living. But there is no current reflection on hate crimes as they are understood today, ”says Cecilia Riquelme, one of its founders, who last Saturday October 12 participated in the Day of Lesbian Rebellion, in Valparaíso. (Translated)

We talk about lesbianicide when a lesbian is killed for being a lesbian. In our society, loving a woman, being a woman, is one of the insults that most hurts masculinity. From corrective sexual harassment, to violations that serve as a “warning”, and coexistence with compulsory heterosexuality that, many times, urges you to remain “in the closet”. Hence, visibility is the political tool that links them: Nicole and Anna were “visible” lesbians, and they ask the question: did they die from being lesbians?

Francisca Millán is a lawyer specialized in Human Rights and gender. Member of the AML study, which is exclusively dedicated to defending women in cases involving gender violence. Her project offers a feminist perspective to materialize the right of access to justice. Millán affirms that women are violated in the Chilean legal system. In this setting, being a lesbian is a direct and very specific affront.

“Lesbianism, from hegemonic masculinity, is a revelation to the social order, because I do not submit to heteropatriarchal logics, I am outside of it, and I am not willing to occupy those roles,” explains Millán.

Offenses that would directly affect lesbians by virtue of being so would be lesbicide, murder of a lesbian, and corrective rape, rape of a lesbian in order to “correct” her. They do not exist as such in the Chilean penal code, but, according to Millán, by mixing base crimes with the Zamudio Law, hate engines can be relieved.

“Offenses of this nature have a lot of expression of power, and demonstrate that there is this exercise of submission with respect to others. That is something quite common in the case of lesbian women: what more obvious way to subdue a woman who is a lesbian than to force her to perform oral sex, ”says the lawyer.

Carmina Vásquez is a lawyer. She is part of the Lesbian-Feminist Network, an articulator of organizations whose purpose is to form support networks for lesbians. Her venture, Chueca Bar, will open soon, a lesbian bar that wants to be a safe space in a very hostile city.

“This has been a tough year. There is the case of Carolina Torres (beaten in Pudahuel), we recently found out about girls being raped in the Forest Park. That scares you, it happens at five in the afternoon, and it happens in the places where we meet, ”he explains. For her, there is a social punishment for being a lesbian, added to that of being a woman. “These hate-lesbo crimes are coupled with sexual themes under the premise of the I am going to teach you. We are talking about corrective rapes, which are also directed at a specific type of lesbian: the truck, which breaks out of the heteronorm, ”she says.

The first crime of lesbophobia registered and investigated is that of Mónica Briones, beaten to death in one of the corners of Plaza Italia in 1984. The case accelerated the formation of the first lesbian-feminist collective in Chile, Ayuquelén, which worked for 15 years.

“In 1984, when Monica was killed, a broad reflection was generated regarding what was happening to all of us, the discrimination we were experiencing. But there is no specific reflection on hate crimes as they are understood today, ”says Cecilia Riquelme, one of its founders, who participated in the Day of Lesbian Rebellions on Saturday, October 12, in Valparaíso.
(Original)

Excerpts from Romina Reyes’ article.
Continue reading at:  https://www.theclinic.cl/2019/10/16/cuando-muere-una-lesbiana-la-busqueda-de-justicia-para-nicole-saavedra-y-anna-cook/  (Source )

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